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Cracked piggy bank - pinkDeprivation and poverty in Southampton

Whilst Southampton has achieved significant economic growth in the last few years, in line with the affluent south, the city’s characteristics relating to poverty and deprivation present challenges more in common with other urban areas across the country with high levels of deprivation.

The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2019) illustrates how Southampton continues to be a relatively deprived city. Based on average deprivation rank of its neighbourhoods (LSOAs), Southampton is now ranked 55th (where 1 is the most deprived) out of 317 local authorities; more deprived than the comparator cities of Bristol (82nd), Leeds (92nd) and Sheffield (93rd). Southampton has 19 Lower Super Output Areas within the 10% most deprived in England and one in the 10% least deprived. More information on the Indices of Multiple Deprivation can be found in the section below.

S-Change in deciles Index of deprivation 2010, 2015 and 2019The economic recession and the introduction of Universal Credit has had a marked impact on Southampton and its residents. In March 2016, the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) estimated that working age adults in the city will lose approximately £350 per year. This is the total cost if shared evenly across the whole working age population (not just claimants of the benefit). Therefore, it does not represent the average or actual impact to those directly affected by each of the reforms, which is likely to be more severe. In practice, the direct impact of the welfare reforms is not shared equally; they impact hardest on some of our most deprived households, with some households affected by several changes. The impact of an individual reform can vary significantly depending on the composition, tenure and circumstance of the household.

In September 2019, there were 5,225 (3%) people claiming JSA or work related Universal Credit compared with 2.8% in England. In 2019, the average weekly gross earnings for a full-time employee, resident in Southampton was estimated to be £553, which is below the England average of £591. In addition, those working in the city earn more than those resident in city, suggesting the best paid jobs in Southampton are being undertaken by workers commuting into the city. More information on wages, employment and Southampton’s economy can be found in the Southampton Economic Assessment.

Deprivation and inequalities between residents and neighbourhoods in Southampton are significant and continue to be a driver for crime and poor health outcomes in Southampton. In addition, key outcomes for children and young people in Southampton continue to be poorer than the national average, with outcomes significantly poorer (and starting earlier in life) for those residents living in the most deprived areas of the city compared to those living in the least deprived areas. More information on the variation in outcomes for Southampton residents can be found in the health inequalities page.

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)

The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) published the latest Indices of Deprivation (IoD) in 2019. The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2019) provides a relative ranking of areas across the country according to their level of deprivation and is the primary source of information on deprivation in England. The IMD measures deprivation at neighbourhood level known as Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs), which contain approximately 1,500 people. Each of the 32,844 LSOAs in England is ranked by their level of deprivation and is then split into 10 equal groups known as deciles.

IMD ranks in EnglandThe IMD (2019) is based on the concept that deprivation consists of more than just poverty. Poverty is not having enough money to get by on where as deprivation refers to a general lack of resources and opportunities. The IMD brings together a range of indicators, which cover specific aspects of deprivation. These indicators are aggregated into seven domains, which are then weighted and combined to create the overall IMD. The majority of the data underpinning the IMD 2019 is from 2015/16, although some is more recent. The 7 domains are income, employment, education, skills and training, health, crime, barriers to housing and services and finally living environment. In addition, the IMD also has two supplementary indices; income deprivation affecting children (IDACI) and income deprivation affecting older people (IDAOPI).

Overall, there has been very little change in relative deprivation levels in Southampton compared to other local authorities in England since the last IMD in 2015, with the Southampton remaining a relatively deprived city. Some of the main findings from the IMD (2019) are outlined below:

  • Of the 317 Local Authorities in England, Southampton is ranked 55th (previously 54th) most deprived based on average rank of LSOAs and 61st (previously 67th) most deprived based on average score of LSOAs
  • The fact that Southampton appears to be more deprived based on the average rank measure (55th nationally and 2nd amongst comparators), illustrates how Southampton is more uniformly deprived rather than being highly polarised (i.e. extremes of deprivation)
  • Southampton has 19 LSOAs within the 10% most deprived in England (same as in 2015) and one LSOA in the 10% least deprived in England (previously zero in 2015)
  • Around 12% of Southampton’s population live in neighbourhoods within the 10% most deprived nationally; this rises to 18% for the under 18 population, suggesting deprivation disproportionately impacts upon young people in the city
  • Over 45% of Southampton’s population live in neighbourhoods within the 30% most deprived nationally (around 117,000 people)
  • At neighbourhood level, approximately half of the LSOAs in Southampton have become more deprived (77/148; 52%) since 2015, whilst half have become less deprived
  • The five most deprived neighbourhoods in Southampton are in Bargate (Golden Grove), Weston (International Way), Weston (Kingsclere Avenue), Thornhill (Lydgate Road) and Millbrook (Lockerley Crescent)
  • Southampton is ranked 3rd worst in the country for crime deprivation and is in the worst 20% of local authorities for 5 other deprivation domains

More information on deprivation in Southampton can be found in a summary slide set, data compendium and series of maps for each deprivation domain, which can be downloaded from the resources section at the bottom of the page. In addition, the IMD (2015) and IMD (2019) data can also be visualised and compared in an interactive map format using the Indices of Deprivation 2019 Explorer produced by MHCLG below.

MHCLG – Indices of Deprivation: 2019 and 2015 Explorer
Visualisation

Deprivation and health

The relationship between deprivation and health is well documented (Marmot, 2010). The report, how does money influence health from the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JFR) identified four main ways in which income in particular affects people’s wellbeing:

  • Material: Money buys goods and services that improve health. The more money families have, the better the goods they can buy
  • Psychosocial: Managing on a low income is stressful. Comparing oneself to others and feeling at the bottom of the social ladder can be distressing, which can lead to biochemical changes in the body, eventually causing ill health
  • Behavioural: For various reasons, people on low incomes are more likely to adopt unhealthy behaviours (smoking and drinking, for example), while those on higher incomes are more able to afford healthier lifestyles
  • Reverse causation (poor health leads to low income): Health may affect income by preventing people from taking paid employment. Childhood health may also affect educational outcomes, limiting job opportunities and potential earnings

There are significant health inequalities in Southampton, with those living in the most deprived areas of the city having poorer health outcomes compared to those living in the least deprived areas. For example, males living in the most deprived areas of the city on average live 6.6 years less than those living in the least deprived areas whilst females live 3.1 years less on average. More information on the variation in health outcomes for Southampton residents can be found on the health inequalities page.

Child poverty

The Marmot Review (2010) suggests there is evidence that childhood poverty leads to premature mortality and poor health outcomes for adults. There is also a wide variety of evidence to show, that children who live in poverty are exposed to a range of risks that can have a serious impact on their mental health. Reducing the numbers of children who experience poverty should improve these adult health outcomes and increase healthy life expectancy.

In 2017/18, figures on households with below average income, from the Department for Work and Pensions, suggest that there are 3.7million (26%) children under 16 in the UK living in absolute poverty (after housing costs). By applying these figures to Southampton, it is estimated that there could be 11,800 children living in absolute low income in the city.

Figures on children living in low-income families are also produced by Public Health England. These measure children living in families in receipt of out of work benefits or tax credits where their reported income is less than 60% of the median income. The latest published figures based on 2016 data show that:

  • 20.1% of children in Southampton aged under 16 are in low income families, compared to the national average of 17.0%
  • 20.0% of all dependent children in Southampton aged under 20 are in low income families, compared to the national average of 17.0%

S-IMD 2019 Income deprivation IDACIThe IMD (2019) includes a supplementary index of Income Deprivation Affecting Children (IDACI). The IDACI measures the proportion of children in each neighbourhood (LSOA) that live in families that are income deprived (i.e. in receipt of Income Support, income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance, Pension Credit (Guarantee) or Child Tax Credit below a given threshold). This shows that there is significant variation across the city, with the proportion of children who are income deprived ranging from less than 5% (LSOAs in Portswood, Shirley and Bassett) to over 45% (LSOAs in Redbridge and Woolston). A map of income deprivation affecting children at neighbourhood level can be seen opposite. All deprivation domain maps can be downloaded from the resources section below.

The proportion of children who are eligible for, and are claiming free school meals is also a useful measure of deprivation and inequality in children. Income can have an adverse impact on the psychological functioning of mothers, with a strong association found between the lack of control perceived by mothers from low-income backgrounds and the social and emotional wellbeing of children, which includes the level of self-esteem and behavioural issues (Gregg, Propper and Washbrook, 2008). It has also been found that children and families from the lowest 20% of household incomes are three times more likely to have common mental health problems than those in the richest 20% (Green et al, 2004). The latest data from the January 2019 DfE school census shows that 21.9% of all pupils, in state funded schools in Southampton, were pupils known to be eligible for and claiming free school meals. This is significantly higher than the average of 15.4% of all pupils in English state funded schools. Local comparator and trend data on free school meals and other child poverty indicators can be explored further using the Public Health England Fingertips tool below.

PHE fingertips – child poverty indicators
Dataset

Fuel poverty

S-Households in fuel poverty 2017 by IMD2019 England DecileIn 2017, figures showed that 10.9% of households in England (2.53 million households) were living in fuel poverty. The proportion living in fuel poverty in Southampton is slightly higher at 11.5%, equating to over 12,000 households in the city. In comparison, the proportion in Hampshire is just 7.5%. This is based on the Low Income High Costs (LIHC) definition, where a fuel poor household is one in which a household has required fuel costs that are above the median level and were the household to spend that amount, they would be left with a residual income below the official poverty line.

There has been an increase in the number of households in fuel poverty between 2011 and 2017. In Southampton, the increase is approximately 2,300 households or 1.7 percentage points. In comparison, the England figure has remained relatively stable over the same period. Levels of fuel poverty within the city vary considerably, although there does not appear to be a clear link between deprivation and fuel poverty. At ward level, fuel poverty ranges from 8.2% in Sholing to 22.4% in Bevois. Further information can be found in the Southampton ward profiles.

Resources

Deprivation and poverty data compendium and tools

Data on deprivation and poverty in Southampton, including the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2019), child poverty, earnings and fuel poverty, can be found in the data compendium, which can be downloaded below. In addition, there are links to Fingertips tools produced by Public Health England (PHE), which bring together data indicators on deprivation and poverty at local authority level. These can be used to explore the data over time and between comparator areas.

Deprivation and poverty data compendium
Dataset
xlsx | 1MB | 19.11.19
PHE fingertips – Child poverty indicators
Dataset
PHE fingertips – Deprivation and poverty indicators
Dataset
DfEd - Schools, pupils and their characteristics (free school meals): January 2019
Dataset
DWP - Households below average income: 1994/95 to 2017/18
Dataset

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2019) reports and data

The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) published the latest Indices of Deprivation (IoD) in 2019. The Indices of Deprivation (2019) provides a relative ranking of areas across the country according to their level of deprivation and is the primary source of information on deprivation in England. The IMD measures deprivation at neighbourhood level known as Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs), which contain approximately 1,500 people, and ranks each of the 32,844 LSOAs in England by their level of deprivation and splits them into 10 equal groups known as deciles. The original IMD data produced by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) can be downloaded below along with a summary slide set. In addition a series of maps are also available below illustrating the deprivation decile assignment for each of Southampton’s 148 LSOAs for each domain of deprivation, along with an interactive mapping tool produced by MHCLG, which allows the data for the whole of England to be explored and compared with 2015.

IMD (2019) Analysis of changes since 2015
Slide set
pdf | 19MB | 14.11.19
Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government - English indices of deprivation 2019
Dataset
MHCLG – Indices of Deprivation: 2019 and 2015 Explorer
Visualisation
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for overall IMD
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England rank change from IMD 2015
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for income domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for income deprivation affecting children (IDACI)
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for income deprivation affecting older people (IDAOPI)
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for employment domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for education, skills and training domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for EST – children and young people sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for EST – adult skills sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for health and disability domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for crime domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for barriers to housing and services domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for BHS – geographical barriers sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for BHS – wider barriers sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for living environment domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for LE – indoor sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19
IMD (2019): LSOA map of England deciles for LE – outdoor sub-domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 19.11.19

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2015) reports and data [Archive]

This section contains archived content from the IMD (2015), for the latest data on deprivation in the city, see the IMD (2019) above. The Indices of Deprivation (2015) provides a relative ranking of areas across the country according to their level of deprivation and is the primary source of information on deprivation in England. The original IMD data produced by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) can be downloaded below along with a report, summary slide set and series of maps for each domain of deprivation.

IMD (2015) - Southampton analysis summary report
Report
pdf | 1MB | 04.01.16
IMD (2015) – Southampton analysis summary slide set
Slide set
pdf | 4MB | 08.09.17
Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHCLG) - English indices of deprivation 2015
Dataset
IMD (2015): Map of England decile assignment change from IMD 2010
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for overall IMD
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for income domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for income deprivation affecting children (IDACI)
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for income deprivation affecting older people (IDAOPI)
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for employment domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for education, skills and training domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for health and disability domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for crime domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for barriers to housing and services domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
IMD (2015): Map of England deciles for living environment domain
Visualisation
jpg | 4MB | 05.10.15
Open Data Communities - Indices of Deprivation 2015 map explorer
Visualisation

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2010) reports and data [Archive]

This section contains archived content from the IMD (2010), for the latest data on deprivation in the city, see the IMD (2019) above. The Department of Communities and Local Government published the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 (IMD) in March 2011. The IMD 2010 provided a relative ranking of areas across England according to their level of deprivation and was based on the concept that deprivation consists of more than just poverty. The majority of the data underpinning the IMD (2010) comes from 2008 although some data comes from other time points such as the 2001 census. The IMD (2010) has now been superseded by the IMD (2015) and IMD (2019) which should be used in most instances. However, documents and data relating to IMD (2010) are provided below for comparative purposes.

IMD (2010): Southampton analysis report
Report
pdf | 1MB | 24.05.11
IMD (2010): Southampton analysis slide set
Slide set
pdf | 6MB | 24.05.11
Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHCLG) - English indices of deprivation 2010
Report

Last updated: 19 November 2019