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Dandelion seed head - pinkLife expectancy

Life expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy are extremely important summary measures of mortality and morbidity in a population. Life Expectancy at a given age (often at birth or at age 65) for an area is the average number of years a person would live, if he or she experienced the particular area’s age-specific mortality rates for that time period throughout his or her life. Figures reflect mortality among those living in an area in each time period, rather than what will be experienced throughout life among those born in the area. The figures are not therefore the number of years a baby born in the area could actually expect to live, both because the mortality rates of the area are likely to change in the future and because many of those born in the area will live elsewhere for at least some part of their lives.

Live expectancy at birth Southampton and England trend 2001-03 to 2015-17 (pooled)Life expectancy at birth for males living in Southampton is currently estimated to be 78.3 years for the 2015 to 2017 pooled period. This is significantly lower than the England average male life expectancy of 79.6 years. Male life expectancy had been increasing in Southampton up until 2009-2011 in line with the England trend. However, since 2009-2011 national male life expectancy has continued to rise, whilst local male life expectancy in Southampton has plateaued (and even fallen in some years) which has created a statistically significant gap. In Southampton, female life expectancy at birth is 82.4 years (2015-2017 pooled), which is also significantly lower than the national average of 83.1 years. Female life expectancy in Southampton has generally increased in line with the national trend, although there are signs in the last couple of years that it is now falling in Southampton to the point where it is now significantly lower than the England average. The chart to the right shows the trend in life expectancy between 2001-2003 and 2015-2017 for males and females.

Life expectancy gap between Southampton and England by broad cause of death 2015-17Public Health England (PHE) have produced an inequalities segment tool which shows the relative contribution that eight broad causes of death have on the gap between life expectancy for Southampton and that for England for the 2015-2017 period. Respiratory (25.6%), Cancer (23.1%) and Circulatory (20%) deaths are the largest groups contributing to the gap in male life expectancy compared to England. On closer inspection, the two largest causes are chronic lower respiratory diseases and heart disease. In contrast, Cancer (49.7%) and Digestive diseases (18.4%) are the largest groups contributing to the gap in female life expectancy compared to England. More detailed analysis shows the single largest cause of the gap in female life expectancy is lung cancer.

In addition to the inequality gap between Southampton and England, there are significant inequalities in life expectancy between neighbourhoods within the city. The latest data for the 2015-2017 period shows that males living in the 20% most deprived areas of the city live on average 6.6 years less than those living in the 20% least deprived areas. Females in the 20% most deprived areas live 3.1 years less than those in the 20% least deprived areas. Furthermore, there is no evidence that this inequality gap in life expectancy is narrowing over time. More information is available in the health inequalities section.

Life Expectancy at birth by IMD2015 2015-2017 (pooled)Life expectancy varies quite widely at ward level within the city. In Bevois, males are expected to live until they are 74.8 years old, 6 years less than males in Bitterne Park. For females, the ward with longest life expectancy is Millbrook (85.2 years), whilst females in Bargate are expected to live 5.2 years less. More information at ward level can be found in the data compendium in the resources section below and in the interactive ward profiles.

Data from the PHE inequalities segment tool suggests that the largest single contributors to the inequality gap in life expectancy within the city for both males and females is lung cancer and chronic lower respiratory diseases. It is likely that this is linked to the higher smoking prevalence (and related ill health) in the most deprived areas of the city. More information on smoking prevalence and related ill health and mortality can be found on the smoking page. Further information and data on life expectancy can be found in the data compendium in the resources section or via the Life Expectancy PHE Fingertips profile below.

Public Health England – Life expectancy segment tool
Dataset
PHE fingertips tool – life expectancy indicators
Dataset

Life expectancy at 65 years

Life expectancy at 65 Southampton and Enlgand trend 2001-03 to 2015-17 (pooled)Life expectancy at age 65 for males in the city is 17.9 years, which is significantly lower than the England average of 18.8 years and the 5th lowest amongst the ONS comparator group. Since 2009-11, there has been a significant fall in male life expectancy at age 65 in the city which has driven the falls seen in male life expectancy at birth over the same period. Following this fall, life expectancy at age 65 has remained fairly static for the last three periods.

Female life expectancy at age 65 in Southampton is 20.6 years, which again is significantly lower than the England average of 21.0 years and places Southampton mid-rank amongst its ONS comparators. Historically, female life expectancy at age 65 in Southampton has been similar to the England average. However, it fell in both 2014-16 and 2015-17, which means it is now significantly lower than England.

Similar to life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 65 varies considerably across the city. In 2015-17, male life expectancy at 65 years ranged from 16.4 years in Bevois to 20.9 years in Shirley, whilst for females it ranged from 18.5 years in Bargate to 23.5 years in Bitterne Park. There is also a significant relationship with deprivation, with males living in the 20% most deprived areas of the city on average living 3.9 years less after the age of 65 years than those living in the 20% least deprived areas; for females, the difference is less pronounced at 1.1 years. Further information and data on life expectancy can be found in the data compendium in the resources section or via the Life Expectancy PHE Fingertips profile below.

PHE fingertips tool – life expectancy indicators
Dataset

Health life expectancy at birth Males and Females Southampton and England trendHealthy life expectancy (HLE)

Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is an estimate of the number of years lived in good health (rather than with a disability or in poor health), based on mortality rates and prevalence of self-reported good health. In 2015-17, males in Southampton could expect to live 61.4 years in good health, lower but not significantly so, than the average for England (63.4 years); this ranks 5th lowest amongst ONS comparators. However, whilst healthy life expectancy for males in Southampton has generally increased, it has fallen for women in the city, to the point where healthy life expectancy for females is lower than males at just 61.0 years; significantly lower than the England average of 63.8 years. Southampton females are living 3.4 more years in poor health in 2015-2017 than they were in 2009-2011, whilst nationally it has remained fairly stable.

The wide confidence intervals means this should be treated with some caution. Nonetheless, this suggests that the gap between male and female healthy life expectancy has narrowed and, although females live longer than males in Southampton, this is often with an extended period of poor health. Further information and data on healthy life expectancy can be found in the data compendium in the resources section or via the Life Expectancy PHE Fingertips profile below.

PHE fingertips tool – life expectancy indicators
Dataset

Disability free life expectancy (DFLE)

Disability-free life expectancy at birth Southampton trend 2006-08 to 2015-17 (pooled)Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is an estimate of the number of years lived without a long-lasting physical or mental health condition that limits daily activities. Latest estimates for the 2015-17 period suggest that males in Southampton should live 60.1 years without disability, which is significantly lower than the national average of 63.1 years and 4th lowest amongst ONS comparators. In comparison, females in Southampton have a disability free life expectancy of 59.5 years, which is again significantly lower than the average value for females in England (62.2 years).

Up until 2013-15, male disability free life expectancy was lower than female disability free life expectancy. However, since then males have had a higher disability free life expectancy than females in Southampton, which is reflective of the wider national trend. It should be noted that the relatively large confidence intervals at local authority level mean that the differences between males and females are not statistically significant in any one period. More information can be found in the resources section below.

Resources

Life expectancy, mortality and end of life care briefing and data compendium

An intelligence briefing including on life expectancy, mortality and end of life care can be downloaded below, along with a data compendium which includes the data used to inform the briefing. Both products include benchmarking, trend and deep dive analysis on life expectancy (at birth and age 65), causes of death, years of life lost, morality rates, excess winter deaths, end of life care and place of death.

Life expectancy, mortality end of life care briefing
Report
pdf | 2MB | 22.05.19
Life expectancy, mortality and end of life care data compendium
Dataset
xlsx | 2MB | 23.07.19

Public Health England (PHE) data, reports and tools

Public Health England (PHE) have produced a number of tools that allow for the exploration of life expectancy, mortality and end of life care data. The Fingertips tools produced by PHE bring together data on a number of indicators at local authority level and can be used to explore the data over time and between comparator areas. PHE have also produced an inequalities segment tool which provides information on the causes of death and age groups that are driving inequalities in life expectancy at local area level. Targeting the causes of death which contribute most to the life expectancy gap should have the biggest impact on reducing inequalities. Links to all PHE data tools can be found below.

Public Health England – Life Expectancy Segment Tool
Dataset
PHE fingertips tool – life expectancy indicators
Dataset
PHE fingertips tool - Mortality profile
Dataset
Public Health England - End of life care profiles
Dataset
PHE – recent trends in mortality in England – December 2018
Dataset
PHE – Life expectancy calculation tool (xls)
Dataset

Office for National Statistics (ONS) data, reports and tools

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) have produced a number of reports, tools and datasets that look into life expectancy and mortality in detail. These to these resources can be found below.

ONS – Life Expectancy releases and their different uses
Report
ONS - Health state life expectancies report 2015-17
Report
ONS – Life expectancy at birth and at age 65 by LA dataset
Dataset
ONS - Life expectancy calculator
Visualisation

Last updated: 22 May 2019